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            報關員考試進出口貿易英語術語解析
            常見的貿易術語有:貿易順差、貿易逆差;詢盤、發盤、還盤;貿易許可證;索賠、理賠;CIF,CFR,CPT等等。貿易是經濟全球化環境下最常見的經濟現象,幾乎沒有一個國家的經濟是封閉式的。中國每年的貿易額都在持續增長。中國最主要的出口產品為紡織品、茶葉、農副產品等。主要進口產品為糧食、高附加值工業品和一些高新技術產品。英:C.W.O.Cash With Order, the cost of an item must accompany the order. 字串9 C.O.D.Cash On Delivery, the cost of an item will be paid when the item is delivered.In stock Goods and materials that a company has available for immediate sale and delivery.Inventory The quantity of goods and materials on hand (in stock). Also, a detailed,itemized list, report, or record of products in a company’s possession, produced from a survey of all goods and materials in stock.Backlog Areserve supply or an accumulation of unfilled orders.Waybill Adocument giving details and instructions relating to a shipment of goods.Shipping date The date that an order actually starts moving toward a destination.Price quote An officially stated price for goods.List price Abasic published or advertised price.Discount Areduction from the full or standard amount of a list price.Shipment Act or instance of shipping goods, or a quantity of goods that are shipped together.Bill of lading Adocument issued by a carrier to a shipper, listing and acknowledging receipt of goods for transport and specifying terms of delivery. 字串2 Invoice Adetailed list of goods shipped or services rendered, with an account of all costs; an itemized bill.Receipt Awritten acknowledgment that a specified article, sum of money, or shipment of merchandise has been received.Irrevocable Letter of Credit Method of payment most commonly used for imports. The exporter is assured payment when they ship the goods, and the importer is assured that the goods have been dispatched according to their instructions.Shipping documents Documents that an exporter receives from the shipping company.The following terms are often used for price quotes in foreign trade:FOB Free On Board - price includes all costs of goods on a ship or aircraft whose destination is stated in the contract.CIF Price includes Cost, Insurance, Freight to a named port of destination in the buyer’s country.CIP Price includes cost of goods, Carriage (freight), and Insurance Paid by container to a named destination in the buyer’s country.Common carrier Common means of shipping, can be transport truck, barge, ship , or train.中文翻譯:訂貨付現 貨款與訂單一起交付。貨到付款 貨款在貨物送達后支付,F貨 可以即時銷售和交付的貨物和材料。存貨 庫存或手頭擁有的貨物和原料數量。也是公司擁有產品的細目表、報告、產品記錄,這是通過對公司的貨物庫存和原料的調查而產生的。積壓未交訂貨 已經下了定單但未交付的訂貨。 字串5 運貨單 關于貨物運輸詳細情況和要求的說明文件。發貨日 所定貨物啟運的日期。 字串7 報價 對貨物的正式報價。報價單價格 基本上是對外公布的或對外宣傳的價格。折扣 對標準全價的部分減免。 字串2 發貨 運裝貨物的行為或情況。提單 承運人開給托運人的單證,證明運輸合同成立和證明承運人已接管貨物或已將貨物裝船,同時還明確規定了交貨條件。發票 運送貨物和提供服務的細目單,詳細列出了每項費用和總費用。收據 收到某件貨物、錢或發貨通知書的書面確認。不可撤銷信用證 進口最常用的付款方式。這種方式能確保進出口雙方的利益,確保出口商發貨后能收到貨款,也可以確保進口商貨已按要求發出。貨運單據 出口商從貨運公司收到的單據。在國際貿易中經常用到的報價術語FOB 離岸價或船上交貨價格,賣方承擔的義務是在合同規定的裝運港和規定的期限內,將貨物裝上買方指派的船只或飛機并及時通知買方,同時負責支付貨物裝上船之前的一切費用。CIF 到岸價格。包括成本、保險費以及運費, 要求運到賣方指定港口。CIP 包括貨物費用、運費、承運商支付的保險費,運到買方指定的目的港的價格。公共承運人 卡車、駁船、船舶或火車等公共運輸工具。

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